Introduction


Since Nepal is an agricultural country, common people of the country have excessive reliance on land. All developmental efforts made for the overall development including social and economic changes, land or land resource is to be directly or indirectly mobilized, and without its appropriate management, building of a prosperous nation can never be imagined. On the other hand, paying attention on sensitivity of common people’s integration with land, it will be the nation’s main responsibility to establish good governance by upgrading judicial access, feeling of security of land ownership, and effectiveness in service effluence.

If land resource is imbalanced and uncontrolled due to the lack of timely and appropriate management of changes caused by the consumption of land to fulfill increasing human needs along with the continuous increment in population, beginning of environmental imbalance, decrease in land productivity, and lastly, a situation, in which next generation will not be able to supply inevitable entities-lodging, fooding, clothing-to sustain their life, will be created. In addition to this, productivity is decreasing because of the flight of young manpower to foreign countries, and by dividing cultivable land into pieces and preserving them for building site, the land will be left uncultivated; lack of irrigation and maximum plotting system are also the causes of it. Similarly, maximum profit from land could not be achieved due to unplanned settlement and uncontrolled urbanization. Though majority of people’s life style, even today, is based on agriculture, it has been a challenge for food security and ownership on land. Thus, to follow necessary methods for eradication of all these challenges appeared at present and to gain maximum profit permanently by utilizing land and land resource on time, reformed land policy has been necessary. By classifying land on the basis of utility and appropriateness, and if possible by adopting policy for utilizing land accordingly, maximum benefit from land resource can be achieved.

While analyzing the present access to land, most of the families are deprived of accessibility to land, or they have very limited access on it.  According to the national agriculture census of 2058, out of total 3364100 farmer families, landless farmer families (less than 0-0.1hector) are 227100 (8 percentage) in number and marginalized farmer families (up to 0.1-0.3 hector) are 670000 (20 percentage) in number. Most of the landless families are working as ploughmen, domestic workers and cattle grazers for their livelihood, whereas the marginalized farmers can hardly sustain their life for six months only from their own production. Though there has not been accurate and authorized study about the number of homeless families in the country, this number is estimated to have been notable. On the other hand, though the bounded labors compelled to live their life of slavery from the past have been released, their families could not have been provided with appropriate rehabilitation and management till today. 

Though the government of Nepal is conducting bounded labor promotion programmes from 2052 B.S. for the improvement of economic and social condition of their families, and is conducting programs related to their income generation and economic development by collecting their data after the bounded labors’ emancipation, by managing their appropriate settlement to bring their economic and social changes, the condition of maximum families has not yet been notably improved. Therefore, by adopting permanent tools of solution for appropriate management of the landless families, including released bounded labors, ploughmen, deprived ones, and people with no houses to guarantee the access to land for the landless and destitute people whose reliance is on agriculture, and to develop productive and entrepreneurial agriculture system has been necessary for their livelihood. It has been an urgent need to implement scientific land reform in the country as per the motto of the interim constitution of Nepal for the implementation by identifying the tools to solve the problems like decrease in productivity due to unequal access on land, diversity and other reasons, and low- income of the families depended on agriculture in an integrated form. It has also been a need of 3year plan to direct a clear vision to move ahead towards the implementation of suggestions given by previous commissions including high commissions about scientific land reform making the same concept among main political parties of the country on the subject of land reform and ownership.

It is very necessary to adopt time friendly technology to maintain good governance in the field of land administration and management, and to make institutional reform and enhance capacity. By utilizing the opportunity of rapid scientific and technological development and of new technologies related to survey and map, readiness to provide maps and geographical information prepared by different sectors has been an urgent necessity, and by arranging these maps and geographical information, national geographical information foundation program established with the intention of easy access of necessary information needs to be extended and managed well for the successful implementation of developmental projects. Besides it, with the use of modern technology in the field of land administration, it is necessary to make time friendly classification on the ground of land utility by updating the record related to land ownership and by uplifting quality services to be imparted to the people.

The weakness and challenges such as, not to be planned national policy, to have limited access to land of the landless and the destitute groups depended on agriculture, to be continued disorganized settlement, to be continued dual control over land though it is less, not to be able to update information related to land and other geographical information , not to be effective on inter unit coordination, not to be fully utilized the contemporary technology in the field of land administration  and survey- map, not to be timely revised acts and rules  to be friendly with modern information and technology etc. are still prevalent in this field.

By utilizing the positive aspects, existence of organizational and legal infrastructure to fix legal right on land by the constitution, and to begin the use of new technology in information and communication, and by facing the existed challenge, there is a possibility of additional assistance to be provided to the national economy with sustainable development in this field.